Irrationality in Science
Science is popular in the modern world as people see it is as a rational method of enquiry. But there is uncertainty and irrationality at the foundation of science. The scientific method uses inductive reasoning to deduce the unknown. Inductive reasoning is inherently uncertain as it makes conclusions from incomplete observation. For example, an observer can deduce that all swans are white because all swans they have seen are white. But they could be wrong as there could exist black swans which the observer has not seen. Scientific discoveries are also subject to this uncertainty as they are deduced from experiments using inductive reasoning. Scientific discoveries are also irrational as they are based on the irrational assumption that the universe is uniform. This assumption makes scientists believe that observations on earth are applicable everywhere in the universe. It makes them believe that past observations can be used to predict the future. It makes them believe in the existence of universal laws. The assumption that the universe is uniform is not based on reason. The only way it can be proved is by observing every phenomenon in every part of the universe across all time and observe uniformity in it. Since such observation is not possible the assumption is irrational. Consequently it makes all scientific discoveries irrational. Scientists assume uniformity in the universe out of habit. They see uniformity in the time scale and physical limits of human life and assume it to be universally true.